Export/Import Terms Company Profile

International Chemical Business Terms

Below is a list of export and import related terms to help you navigate the international chemical business. All terms are listed alphabetically.



In the marine transportation industry, it refers to one group unit of workers who load/unload goods to and from a ship. In most cases, on the container ship one gang consists of 7 to 12 people. They are great people.

Gantry Crane

A crane for stevedoring the containerized cargo, also called container crane or bridge crane. Although sometimes it may be mounted on a ship, it is usually installed at the wharf and it is used for unloading the containerized cargo from the container ship to the wharf or for loading on the ship. The average traffic per one gantry crane in each terminal in Japan is about 35 containers per hour.

General Average

The system of proportionally sharing the loss between the interested parties and jointly bearing the damage, for the reasonable payment of damages and expenses in case the ship suffers an accident. If losses and expenses are incurred because of tossing overboard a part of the cargo to avoid the danger of sinking, the general average is declared by the shipping company. When the general average is declared, the shipping company that was able to avert the sinking of the ship as well as the owner of the goods whose sinking was avoided must contribute a portion to the compensation and expenses of the sacrificed goods, according to the value of the cargo. The principles and settlement methods of the general average are established by the York-Antwerp Rules. In principle, being covered by a cargo marine insurance, if the cargo has a cargo marine insurance, the general average cost will be paid by the insurance company.

General Rate of Duty

A rate established by the Customs Tariff Law, a basic customs tariff applied over a long period as long as there is no special change in circumstances. Set based on a long-term perspective, it takes into consideration the situation of the domestic industry, the differences between domestic and foreign prices and the proper protection of the domestic industries. It is one of the statutory tariffs together with the temporary rate and the preferential rate.

General Terms and Conditions

Terms of contract to apply to all the transactions of a company.
In most cases mentioned on the back side of contracts such as purchase orders or confirmation orders, sometimes having mentioned on the front side: “The contents on the back are prerequisites for the contract. They are integral parts of the contract together with the back side”.

Generalized System of Preference (GSP)

An international system that promotes industrialization and economic development of developing countries, providing a solution to the North-South problem by applying rates lower than the usual customs tariff (preferential rates) for specific agricultural/fishery and industrial goods imported by developed countries from developing countries. The framework was agreed in 1970 at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and in Japan the system has been implemented since August 1971.

GSP–LDC (Generalized System of Preference-Least Developed Countries, Special Preferential System)

The system of eliminating customs duty for the products from those least developed countries (LDC) among the countries receiving preferential tariffs which are appointed to be suitable for receiving special preferential treatment. The system applies to an unlimited quantity, except in respect of certain exceptional items. Duty-free and quota-free arrangements for LDCs.